Basic historical information available in encyclopedias or history
textbooks falls under the classification of "common knowledge" and does
not need to be cited. Information of this sort includes:
is NOT appropriate to quote directly from any source (including
encyclopedias and textbooks) without proper citation, but the source of
the basic facts themselves need not be cited. Historical facts found on
the Internet do not need to be cited if they can also be found in standard
encyclopedias and textbooks. DO NOT take it for granted, however,
that facts from the Internet are accurate. Accept them only if the same
information can be found in an encyclopedia or textbook.
teacher making a research assignment may, at his or her discretion,
require each student to submit a list of general works consulted in the
gathering of common historical knowledge.
Germany’s army, the Wehrmacht, invaded Poland using blitzkrieg
tactics on September 1, 1939, and in so doing, began World War II. (NO
HISTORICAL SOURCES REQUIRING PROPER CITATION
Direct quotations from any source.
Images or graphics (from the Internet or elsewhere).
Historical opinions, theories or facts which are recent and/or
(Internet or print media published in the last 25 years.)
Descartes wrote from Sweden, “It seems to me that men’s thoughts freeze
here in winter just like the water….” (DIRECT QUOTE—CITATION REQUIRED)
In his book Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge (1999), Edward
O. Wilson argues that the Enlightenment thinkers of the 18th
century were perhaps the last European intellectuals of modern times to
believe in the concept of the unity of all knowledge.
(OPINION FROM A RECENT BOOK—CITATION REQUIRED)
George Hudler, a plant pathologist at
Cornell University, has recently suggested that a fungus called
Claviceps purpura or ergot may have contributed to the witch hysteria
which culminated in the Salem Witch Trials of 1692.
CONTROVERSIAL THEORY—CITATION REQUIRED)